Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Re-writing the example code from Chaos and Fractals

I stumbled on an interesting book on fractal algorithms: Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science.  What made me take notice was that each chapter ended with a short, approachable example program that demonstrates a concept.  The programs also generate some neat-looking fractal diagrams, and IMHO it's always fun to play around with algorithms that generate pictures.

Another interesting point was that, in the first edition of the book, each example program was written in the BASIC programming language. The choice of BASIC doesn't seem so odd with a little historical context.  The book was published in 1992, and around that time there weren't very many good cross-platform programming languages, especially when you consider cross-platform drawing libraries.  But, at the time, BASIC fit the bill.  It could run on DOS-based PCs and Apple IIs, which, at the time, probably covered a pretty good swath of the audience for the book.  Most BASIC dialects also included the LINE and PSET functions which were all the example programs needed to draw the output of all sorts of fractal algorithms.  In hindsight, BASIC seems like a decent choice.  In the second edition of the book, I believe the authors switched to something else like Java applets; I was working from a first edition copy from my local library so I don't know much about the second edition.

I decided it would be a fun exercise to port these example programs to javascript, since that seems to be the new cross platform language of choice in this decade.  I tried to reproduce them as faithfully as possible without any attempt at further optimization, and I tried to use as few non-BASIC language constructs as possible.  I say few as possible, since many BASIC language constructs don't have direct analogous constructs in javascript, for instance GOTOs and labels.  So I present to you below, my implementation of these examples.

I ran into a few caveats during the porting process that are worth mentioning:

  • To view my javascript source, just choose View Page Source and you should be able to look around and find the example code.
  • Most of these algorithms are recursive and I had to get a little imaginative when converting GOTOs and GOSUBs to proper function calls.
  • For displaying the graphical output of each program, I used the HTML canvas object.
  • I tried to leave the BASIC code as comments amongst the javascript code so in case you're following along with the book you'll have some guide posts in the code.
  • The example code uses several different invocations of the LINE and PSET functions, and I had to track down some BASIC language documentation to figure out what the invocations should do.  As a result, it seems that the BASIC dialect used is closest to GW-BASIC and QuickBASIC.
  • The output from the programs for chapters 12 and 13 did not look like the diagrams in the book and I spent quite a bit of time debugging them looking for my error.  In the end I downloaded the DOSBox emulator and a copy of QuickBASIC and ran the programs there.  In both cases, the BASIC code ran but outputted exactly the same result that I got from my javascript version.  So I can only conclude that there is an error either in the code or the diagram printed in the book.
  • Some of the programs take a while to run (especially chapter 12 and 14), and this can lead modern browsers to display errors that the browser tab has hung or otherwise failed.  In the chapter 12 code I tried to mitigate this somewhat by adding chunking code to sleep between chunks of loop iterations.  It's less noticeable in chapter 14, but if you run into issues you can often get around it by just reloading the page and trying again.

Chapter 1: Graphical Iteration
Chapter 2: Sierpinski Gasket
Chapter 3: The Koch Curve
Chapter 4: The Cantor Set
Chapter 5: Iterating the MRCM
Chapter 6: Chaos Game for the Fern
Chapter 7: L-systems
Chapter 8: Cellular Automata
Chapter 9: Random Midpoint Displacement
Chapter 10: Times Series and Error Development
Chapter 11: Final State Diagram
Chapter 12: Rossler Attractor
Chapter 13: Julia Sets
Chapter 14: Mandelbrot Sets

Monday, December 22, 2014

Brewing Beer with a Sous Vide Cooker

In beer brewing, the techniques that you use to extract the sugar that the yeast turns into alcohol are very important.  Sugar is pulled from malted grain by soaking it in hot water, which is called mashing.  The temperature of the water, and the length of time the grain is soaked makes a very big difference in the amount of sugar extracted.  The amount of sugar received is determined by measuring the density of the resulting water using a device called a hydrometer.  The ratio of extracted sugar compared with the theoretical maximum amount of sugar is called efficiency and is usually somewhere around 75%.

In addition to getting the sugar out of the grain, soaking the grain can have other effects by breaking down various proteins which can effect the flavor, the amount of head, and other factors in the resulting beer.  In order to get some of these secondary effects brewers can do multi-rest mashes where they soak the grains at different temperatures for different amount of time.  If you want more homebrewing theory, check out Palmer's excellent book.

All of this is difficult to do in the real world when all you are armed with is a stove with a knob that, when turned, will eventually change the temperature of the 5 or more gallons of water and grain.  Basically, it turns into doing a kind of human-powered PID controller, which is no fun at all.

Being an engineer, I thought that this definitely falls under the category of a task that a computer could do better than a human.  I started doing some planning in my head about what would be required for some kind of computing device to control my stove (or other heating element) so that I could set an exact temperature and let the computer worry about keeping the beer at the temperature.  It turns out that it's not hard since this kind of temperature control is used in industry all the time for many purposes besides mashing beer.

The auto mash temp control project was sitting solidly on the back burner in my brain when I saw that Sous Vide cookers were getting cheaper.  I will spare you the details, but Sous Vide cooking is a method of cooking by putting food in a water bath that is kept at an exact temperature by a temperature controller.

If you replace the water with wort (unfermented beer) then this sounds exactly like what I wanted to control mash temperature.  Sous Vide cookers operate in the same temperature range as typical mash temperatures, are generally made from food-safe materials, and are made to attach to the sides of standard cooking pots. All of these qualities make them ideal for use with a mash.

So I bought an Anova Sous Vide cooker and made a batch of beer, and the results were excellent.  I made this Irish Dry Stout recipe, with a mash temperature of 152 degrees F for 90 minutes, and a 170 deg mash out for 10 minutes.  In the end I got 75% efficiency, and I pretty much sat back and relaxed during the mash step instead of a typical batch where I have to watch the temperature like a hawk the whole time.

Footage of the mash and details and tips for using the Anova cooker with a mash are in the the video above, but the big takeaways are:
  1. The Anova cooker seems to work quite well for mashing, and I will definitely use it again.
  2. Only use the cooker for fine-tuning the mash temperature.  For brute force heating use your stove burner.  This is to avoid caramelizing any sugars to the Anova's heating cool which would make the Anova hard to clean and may effect the flavor of the beer.
  3. Use a grain bag.  This keeps the grain from plugging up the innards of the Anova.  Be careful about where you aim the output of the Anova's circulator such that the grain bad doesn't get pulled into the Anova's intakes.
  4. Carefully calculate batch size.  The liquid level must fall within the Min and Max lines on the Anova and this can be tricky to hit correctly when using a large brew pot, so do your math ahead of time to get it right.
Disclaimer: I don't know if Anova recommends using their Sous Vide cooker in this way, so I can't be responsible for any damage to the Anova cooker, problems with the resulting beer, or any other issues or problems you might encounter.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Quiz Show Buzzers

Recently I got a commission to create a set of quiz show buzzers.  There was nothing on the market that really fit what my client was looking for so they had me build something for them.  I found this instructable which was similar to, but not exactly, what the client wanted so I used that project as inspiration.

I made a video above which shows some of the steps during development as well as the finished device.

The basic requirements were:
  • A control unit for the person running the game to see the order that players pressed their buttons.
  • Four remote units that connect to the control box.  The remote unit should light up such that both the player and audience can see which player rang in first.
  • A sound should play when the first player rings in.  The preference would be for the sound to be something like the Family Feud ring in sound.
  • As a bonus it would be nice to have the cables between the remote boxes and the control unit be something that is easily replaceable in case longer cable lengths are needed in the future.
Software and Electronics
I started with an Arduino because, for simple devices like this, it is the quickest way for me to get started.  More specifically, I used a RBBB from Modern Device, since it is a cheap way to embed an Arduino in a project.

For the LEDs, I started with some old LEDs that I had lying around, but quickly found that they weren't bright enough to use with the ping pong ball diffusers I used for this project.  I ended up buying some new higher efficiency LEDs.  I tweaked the current limiting resistors for each different color of LED to maximize their drive current (and therefore brightness).  See the video for a demonstration of the LEDs.

I hadn't ever really done much with sound on the Arduino before so this was new territory.  I found that I could embed a WAV file (after re-encoding it as an array of data in the Arduino sketch), and then play it back using the PCM library.  I also found the ring-in sound from Family Feud on this website, which was really handy.

I struggled a bit getting the sound hardware working.  It's pretty easy to connect a speaker directly to an output pin from the Arduino, but that wasn't loud enough in my case where I wanted an entire room to hear it.  So I needed an amplifier of some kind, and I tried a number of different ones, but none seemed to work very well.  Eventually I found this site with the simplest amplifier of all, just a transistor and resistor.  This worked fantastically well, and required almost no work or expense to get it going!  You can see my circuit in the schematic.

I whipped up some more code to time the inputs to detect which player rang in first using the pin change interrupts on the Arduino.  This was easy using the handy PinChangeInt library.

Last of all for the software, I needed to create several different blink patterns on the LEDs.  Again an existing Arduino library came to my rescue in the form of the TimedAction library that allows you to setup psuedo-thread functions to run arbitrary code on a configurable time period.

The prototype was now complete but I had to assemble the final version.  I decided to use headphone jacks to connect the remote boxes and the control unit together.  In this way I could carry the signals I needed over an inexpensive patch cable and make the all of the boxes easily detachable for storage.

As mentioned before, I used ping pong balls as inexpensive light diffusers attached through holes in the button boxes and held in place with hot glue.  The large buttons were attached through a hole in the top of each button box.  The speaker in the control box was attached with hot glue with a piece of screen placed in front of the speaker before gluing.

Assembly was much more time consuming than I thought.  Many hours of cutting, drilling, and soldering later, I had the final product which you can see in the video above.  My projects always seem to take way more time in the less interesting mechanical parts than in the super-fun electronics and software parts...

I got everything done in time and my client has been happily playing rounds of Jeopardy and trivia games for months now.

And now you get the benefit of all that work in the form of source code and schematics:
schematic (sorry, it's hand drawn)

Monday, December 08, 2014

Talking to an Arduino on Android with USB OTG

As part of the Thinkery robot project, we planned on creating an interface for the robots via a 7 inch Android tablet.  The tablet was supposed to display things like sensor readings and play videos and music when the robots went into dance mode.  In the end we didn't have time to finish this Android app, but I did some work in figuring out how the Android tablet and Arduino would communicate with each other.

Interfacing between an Arduino and Android devices is nothing new, the Amarino framework does it, and the MIT app inventor makes it really easy.  The downside of this and many of the existing examples is that they require the Arduino to have a bluetooth interface.  Using bluetooth for the interface is great if you need the connection between the Arduino and Android device to be wireless, but there are downsides to this approach.  First, the cost increases on the Arduino side; a bluetooth interface can cost as much as the Arduino itself.  Second, the Arduino must have its own power source, since there is no easy way for it to leech off the Android device's power supply if there is no wired connection to it.

I should mention here, for the sake of completeness, that there is another alternative besides using bluetooth: various IOIO boards.  These board connect through USB to an Android device and provide IO capabilities similar to an Arduino.  IMHO, these board still have some downsides: 1) they are still more costly than a standard Arduino board, and 2) they still require an external power source (they can't get their power from the Android device's USB port).

Since the robots were going to contain both a an on-board Arduino and Android tablet it made more sense to have a direct (wired) connection between the two.  I knew from my experiences with Linux (Android runs on top of Linux), that it is certainly possible for a portable device to act as a USB host using USB OTG.  So after a bit of searching I figured out that most recent Android devices do support USB OTG and have the correct drivers included to interface to USB serial devices (the Arduino enumerates as a USB serial device).

The next problem was how to physically connect the Arduino to the Android device.  Most Android devices have a female microUSB connector and the Arduino has a female USB-B connector.  To connect between them I got a USB OTG adapter from Monoprice.  An interesting side note is that the USB OTG adapter works equally well to connect a keyboard or flash drive to an Android device.

After even more searching, I found a very useful Android library that makes it easy to interface to USB serial devices.  While trying to build the example app I found that it was actually a little easier to use this fork of the original library project.

To test with my Android tablet (a Nexus 7), I programmed my Arduino with a simple sketch that sets the baud rate to 115200 and prints an integer string to the serial port every second, then I compiled and installed the example app from the USB serial library project and connected the Arduino to the Nexus.  It detected the new USB connection immediately and launched the Android app, and I could see my integers happily printing!

I then modified the example app to include a button which, when pressed, sends data to the Arduino.  On the Arduino side, the received data turns an LED on and off.  I uploaded my final code to this github repo.

In the end, we didn't have time to flesh out the Android interface for the Thinkery Robot Army, but it is certainly a useful tool for a future project.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Thinkery Robot Army

Recently I did some volunteer work with the Thinkery, which is a a children's museum here in Austin.  They wanted several simple robots that they could take around town and show off to schools and similar places to drum up interest in the museum.

I got pulled in to help with the Arduino "brain" of each robot.  I mostly wrote the firmware for the Arduino but also did some of the circuit design.

All of the robots runs a basic object avoidance routine and, just for fun, each 'bot periodically stops what it's doing and runs a dance sequence.  The robots turned out pretty well; here's a look at them:


The TurtleBot is a four wheeled robot.  Two continuous rotation servos run the wheels, one positional servo turns the head left and right.  An ultrasonic range finder is mounted in the head.  The robot travels forward until it encounters an obstruction, then it looks left and right to see if there is a clear path.  If it detects a clear path it turns in that direction and continues forward.

The tablet mount you can see in the picture was meant to hold a 7 inch Android tablet that would interface with the 'bot, but we ran out of time to implement that.  The beginnings of an Android app to interface with the 'bot is here.

An instructable with construction details is here and the Arduino source code for TurtleBot is available here.


PawsBot consists of a ultrasonic sensor, and two positional servos.  It walks forward on stilt legs until an obstruction is encountered then it backs away.  It doesn't have the ability to turn left or right.  The trickiest part of this robot is getting the legs adjusted correctly such that its gait is correct; the bend in the middle of the robot is important for that.

An instructable with construction details is here and the Arduino source code for the PawsBot is available here.


LegBot is the simplest robot of the three; it's only a positional servo and an ultrasonic range finder.  It works by moving it's legs with a scissor motion and since one foot is more heavily weighted than the other (one foot contains the batteries) it slowly moves forward.  Since the 'bot has no way to move backward or turn, it stops when it encounters an obstruction.

An instructable with construction details is available here and the Arduino source code for the LegBot is available here.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Evolution of a DIY PVR

Almost 10 years ago, I wrote an article for Make magazine about building a DIY digital video recorder (DVR).  At the time, there weren't any devices available, outside of subscription-based devices like Tivo, to help record TV.

My DIY device served me well for several years, but I get occasional questions on how or if I've updated my recorder, since much of the software and hardware I used at the time is now obsolete.

The answer is that I have been steadily upgrading that recorder during the intervening years, since there still isn't a commercial DVR on the market that meets my needs.

My original rig

The original article was here, but it appears to have been taken down, although the comments are still viewable. There is still a re-print of the article here.  Here is a brief summary of the components of that system:
  • Hardware: Dell Dimension 4500 with 512MB running Windows 2000 and a Hauppauge WinTV-PVR-250 TV card
  • BeyondTV: For TV recording, scheduling, and live TV overlays
  • WinDVD, Winamp, SlimServer: For media playback and streaming
  • Various console game emulators
  • Girder automation software: To create on-screen launcher menus
  • Cygwin and server software: For Linux-like ftp and ssh servers

Switch from BeyondTV to NPVR

Some time went by and I was getting annoyed with the amount of maintenance required to keep the machine up and running.  Various software components were always crashing and otherwise costing me time.  I started by removing the cygwin software because I wasn't using them enough to justify the time commitment.  At this point I also upgrade the PC I was using to Windows XP.

I also switched from using BeyondTV to NPVR (now called NextPVR).  NPVR had more features, such as DVD playback, and a good plugin system which allowed me to get rid of the extra media playback software like WinDVD.  I was also able to absorb the emulators into the NPVR interface using a plugin.  And best of all, NPVR was free!

The dominoes kept falling and since all of the functionality I needed was handled by NPVR, I got rid of the Girder-based menu system.

Streaming video to Roku
Up until this point I had my PC directly connected to my TV, but around this time, streaming set-top boxes were becoming inexpensive.  So I grabbed a Roku box, and found an obscure way to play media files from my local network, called the MyMedia channel.

While the MyMedia channel worked well, it needed a very particular video format, so I wrote a python script to transcode the video that NPVR produces automatically for me.  The script monitors a directory location for new files and then transcodes them using Handbrake and moves the resulting files to a location where the MyMedia server will pick them up.

I later added some more advanced features like also making the script monitor incoming video from bittorrent, and also making it intelligently rename the files and sort them into my existing video library.  I also made the script act as a simple system monitor and restart troublesome processes automatically to avoid crashes, hangs, and poor performance, which were a continual problem since I was still running on an old Windows XP box.

I also had a few more service running on the box, such as a Subsonic server for music streaming, a Ventrilo server for voice chat while playing games with friends,  an apache server to serve up my electronic parts database, a uTorrent client with a remote web interface.

Somewhere around this time I also invested in a Chromecast, and found I could use an app, Localcast, to stream media files to my TV.  This acts as a good backup to the Roku.

At this point I had a distributed video streaming network, with a central media server, and a remote web administration interface provided by NPVR.  This served me well for about 5 years.

Transition to Linux
About a year ago the coming demise of Windows XP and my growing fascination with Linux converged to make me take the plunge and re-implement my PVR on a Linux box.  I chose to go with Linux Mint 17 as my distro.

I had to port over all of the services that had been on my Windows box:
  • MyMedia server - cross-platform python script, so it just works
  • Subsonic - debian packages available
  • uTorrent - Switched to Deluge, since, at the time of this writing, the Linux version of uTorrent isn't robust
  • Ventrilo -  Linux versions available
  • transcoder script - python script, required a little bit of porting for paths and the like
  • Handbrake - needed by transcoder script, Linux versions available
  • smb file system support for streaming via LocalCast
  • various server software - apache, php, mysql, ssh, etc.
Most of those packages didn't have proper init scripts to make them run at system startup, so I wrote scripts for those that didn't have them.

My server is now much more stable and trouble-free, owing to the fact that Linux is better designed for running servers.  This also gave me a useful platform for software development, such as Node-Red,  and a private git repo for source code control.

Future Plans
Even though my current server box (can it even be called a PVR any more?), I still have some improvements I would like to make:
  1. Install mythtv so that I can record TV again.  You may have noticed that I didn't mention porting over to a replacement for NPVR.  Mythtv is that replacement, but I don't record that much TV anymore so I haven't yet bothered to take the time to set it up.
  2. Try out the Plex media server as a possible replacement to the MyMedia channel.  I've had multiple people recommend Plex to me for local media streaming and I'd like to give it a try and see if it's worth the fuss.

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

First steps with Node-RED

In my ongoing quest to find a good home automation software framework to run the hardware I built, I discovered Node-Red.  Node-Red is the self-professed "visual tool for wiring the Internet of Things".  Sounds promising.

Node-Red is a graphical programming environment based on node.js.  (Node.js is basically server-side javascript). Since it's built on node.js, Node-Red can run anywhere node.js runs.  It's all open source, and was started by IBM.

The interface to Node-Red runs completely in a web-browser, so there's no need to install anything on your development machine, and it is even usable from a mobile browser. It works by connecting wires between different functional nodes, kind of like the picture above.  There are lots of different nodes that do various things, from interfacing to a WeMo light switch to accessing emails from a Gmail account.

There is no built-in UI in Node-Red, but I think that might actually be an advantage.  It has numerous methods of connecting to a custom UI, and this way, you don't restrict users to a default UI that might not suit their application.

I got interested in Node-Red because I saw several different people using it to do home automation with JeeNodes.

I mostly followed the instructions here to install Node-Red to an old laptop running Xubuntu.

First I installed the Node.js package manager and Node.js itself:
sudo apt-get install npm
sudo apt-get install node

Then I downloaded the latest release zip file from nodered.org and unzipped to ~/dev
cded into that dir and ran 'npm install --production'.

Next up I launched Node-Red it by doing 'nodejs red.js'.  Running 'node red.js' doesn't work since the debian packages install it as nodejs to avoid a conflict. Eventually I ended up symlinking node to nodejs to make things easier:
ln -s /usr/bin/nodejs /usr/bin/node

And with that Node-Red seems to be up and running.

Node-Red ships with a pretty good set of basic nodes, but there is also a git repo that has even more nodes, so I thought I'd try that out.  I installed the extra nodes by doing 'cd nodes; git clone https://github.com/node-red/node-red-nodes.git'.

It should be noted that many of these additional nodes rely on node.js libraries and until those libraries are installed, the new node will not appear in the Node-Red palette.  As an example, if I want to use the suncalc node to generate an event at sunrise every day, I would need to install the suncalc library by doing 'npm install suncalc'.

Hello World
I ran through the initial tutorial and was successful.  Programs in Node-Red are called "flows". The basic design pattern in Node-Red is: drop and config nodes, wire them together, hit deploy.  Pretty simple, and even better, it actually works.

The debugging is a little simplistic in that you can print values to a debug log.  But again, it's simple, and it works, so I can't complain too much.

Flows can be exported as a json string, and imported by the same mechanism.  For the rest of this post I'll post the exported json for the flows I've used.

Controlling  execution
The Node-Red documentation has a good "hello world" tutorial, and has a tutorial on creating new plugin nodes, but it's a little sparse beyond that.  I did some experiments to figure out how the nodes in Node-Red actually execute.  Here's what I've figured out.

First off, Node-Red is completely event based.  Nothing executes unless an external event triggered it.  The "delay" and "trigger" nodes also allow timing based events to be generated.

The wires between the nodes are there to symbolize a data connection to the previous node.  More specifically the wires are really a graphical representation of how javascript Objects get passed to and from nodes.  These are usually referred to as msg objects and their contents can be somewhat arbitrary but most often contain a data member called payload.

So how can you control whether a node executes, like you can with an "if" statement in most text based languages?  If you return a "null" for any of the outputs then any of the subsequent nodes attached to that output don't execute.  A way to demonstrate that is by creating a function node that has multiple outputs which means you return an array of msg objects.  Any element in the array that has a value of null will prevent the connected node from executing.  By the way, this is exactly how a "switch" node works.  Check out the "demo switch" node in the example flow below.

Here's the example flow I'll be using for the rest of the post:
[{"id":"f64d219e.53a208","type":"inject","name":"","topic":"","payload":"","payloadType":"date","repeat":"","crontab":"","once":false,"x":439,"y":454,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["5863bf74.888a3"]]},{"id":"5863bf74.888a3","type":"function","name":"demo switch","func":"msg.payload = \"hello\";\n//return [null, msg];\nreturn [msg, msg];","outputs":"2","x":628,"y":452,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["6d0fe6ba.2d2e88"],["d6a0f7c1.e949e8"]]},{"id":"6d0fe6ba.2d2e88","type":"debug","name":"demo out 1","active":true,"console":"false","complete":"false","x":821,"y":407,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]},{"id":"d6a0f7c1.e949e8","type":"debug","name":"demo out 2","active":true,"console":"false","complete":"false","x":820,"y":486,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]},{"id":"1ec662d2.3b7c25","type":"http in","name":"","url":"/test","method":"get","x":450,"y":277,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["dd8cd3d3.17b08"]]},{"id":"9c30b932.4da1e","type":"debug","name":"test URL","active":true,"console":"false","complete":"false","x":850,"y":189,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]},{"id":"6b3281a7.0a29c8","type":"http response","name":"","x":841,"y":276,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]},{"id":"dd8cd3d3.17b08","type":"function","name":"Gen response","func":"var resp = \"Hello \" + msg.payload.name;\nmsg.payload = resp;\nreturn msg;","outputs":1,"x":665,"y":276,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["6b3281a7.0a29c8","9c30b932.4da1e"]]},{"id":"7a4aeee7.85b51","type":"inject","name":"","topic":"","payload":"","payloadType":"date","repeat":"","crontab":"","once":false,"x":424.5182189941406,"y":573.5229034423828,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["fbd25db9.042da"]]},{"id":"fbd25db9.042da","type":"function","name":"count","func":"if (context.hasOwnProperty(\"counter\"))\n\tcontext.counter += 1;\nelse\n\tcontext.counter = 0;\n\ncontext.global.counter = context.counter + 1;\n\nmsg.payload = \"local counter = \" + parseInt(context.counter, 10);\n\nreturn msg;","outputs":1,"x":602.5182647705078,"y":572.522876739502,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["caaa07a5.3555f8"]]},{"id":"caaa07a5.3555f8","type":"debug","name":"","active":true,"console":false,"complete":false,"x":782.5182189941406,"y":577.5229034423828,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]},{"id":"36a0278c.c95fd8","type":"inject","name":"","topic":"","payload":"","payloadType":"date","repeat":"","crontab":"","once":false,"x":424.5182189941406,"y":638.5228900909424,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["4b22fcbc.b4dd04"]]},{"id":"4b22fcbc.b4dd04","type":"function","name":"get global count","func":"msg.payload = \"global counter = \" + parseInt(context.global.counter, 10);\n\nreturn msg;","outputs":1,"x":603.5182189941406,"y":634.5229034423828,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[["f51d7f6a.0ae28"]]},{"id":"f51d7f6a.0ae28","type":"debug","name":"","active":true,"console":false,"complete":false,"x":782.5182762145996,"y":633.5228900909424,"z":"d5a6cdcf.6203b","wires":[]}]

Local and Global variables
Within a function node there is a way to persist data between calls to that node that is both local to that node and global to all nodes.  It's documented pretty well here.  I created a quick demonstration of globals using a couple of function nodes.

First web service
Just to try out what I'd learned I used some techniques from here, and got a working test URL using http in and http response nodes!  Just pass a "name" parameter to the URL and it will print a Hello message.  Something like this: "http://site/test?name=Ken"

I really liked working with Node-Red, and I think I'll probably continue using it.

  • Open source and actively developed by IBM
  • Web-based development
  • Graphical programming/rule development
  • https and basic http authentication is supported.  See here for more info.
  • Mobile-friendly interface
  • No built-in UI
  • No built-in database for sensor readings, though there are nodes to interface with various DB formats